DSE ECON|基本經濟概念 Basic Economic Concepts|中英對照筆記


機會成本 Opportunity Cost

  • 機會成本是在放棄的選項中價值最高者
    Opportunity cost is the highest-valued option forgone
  • 完全成本 = 金錢成本 + 非金錢成本(例如:時間成本)
    Full cost = Money cost + Non-money cost (e.g. Time cost)

選項一 Option 1 – 已選選項 chosen option
選項二 Option 2 – 在放棄的選項中價值最高者 highest-valued option forgone

選擇選項一的機會成本 Opportunity cost of choosing option 1
選項一的成本 Option 1’s cost + ( 選項二的價值 Option 2’ s value –  選項二的成本 Option 2’s Cost )

物品 Goods

經濟物品 Economic goods

  • More economic goods are preferred
  • Quantity available is not sufficient to satisfy all human wants
  • People are willing to pay a price for getting more economic goods
  • Economic goods are produced by using scarce resources which have alternative uses
    Involving opportunity cost to produce

免費物品 Free goods

  • More free goods are not preferred
  • Quantity available is sufficient to satisfy all human wants
  • People are not willing to pay a price for getting more free goods

資本物品(生產者物品)Capital goods

  • 用作協助生產 Used to help production

消費品 Consumer goods

  • 用作滿足慾望 Used to satisfy wants

共用品 Public goods

  • 共用品是在消費上具非競爭性和不可排他性的物品
    Public Good is non-rival and non-excludable in consumption

私用品 Private goods

  • Private Good is rival and excludable in consumption

Non-rival in consumption

Non-excludable in consumption

A person’s consumption will not reduce the quantity available to others

Too costly to exclude others from consumption


To borrowers,

interest is the cost he / she paid for earlier consumption on goods / resources

To lenders,

interest is the compensation he / she received for deferring consumption on goods / resources

實證性陳述和規範性陳述 Positive Statement and Normative Statement

實證性陳述 Positive Statement

  • 不涉及價值判斷
    Does not involve value judgement
  • 可被事實推翻
    Refutable by facts

規範性陳述 Normative Statement

  • 涉及價值判斷
    Involve value judgement
  • 不可被事實推翻
    NOT refutable by facts